Thermodynamic Properties#
Phases#
These classes are used to describe the thermodynamic state of a system.
ThermoPhase#
- class cantera.ThermoPhase(infile='', name='', *, origin=None, yaml=None, thermo=None, species=(), **kwargs)#
Bases:
_SolutionBase
A phase with an equation of state.
Class
ThermoPhase
may be used to represent the intensive thermodynamic state of a phase of matter, which might be a gas, liquid, or solid.Class
ThermoPhase
is not usually instantiated directly. It is used as a base class for classesSolution
andInterface
.- DP#
Get/Set density [kg/m^3] and pressure [Pa].
- DPX#
Get/Set density [kg/m^3], pressure [Pa], and mole fractions.
- DPY#
Get/Set density [kg/m^3], pressure [Pa], and mass fractions.
- HP#
Get/Set enthalpy [J/kg or J/kmol] and pressure [Pa].
- HPX#
Get/Set enthalpy [J/kg or J/kmol], pressure [Pa] and mole fractions.
- HPY#
Get/Set enthalpy [J/kg or J/kmol], pressure [Pa] and mass fractions.
- P#
Pressure [Pa].
- P_sat#
Saturation pressure [Pa] at the current temperature.
- Pe#
Get electron Pressure [Pa].
- SP#
Get/Set entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K] and pressure [Pa].
- SPX#
Get/Set entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K], pressure [Pa], and mole fractions.
- SPY#
Get/Set entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K], pressure [Pa], and mass fractions.
- SV#
Get/Set entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K] and specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol].
- SVX#
Get/Set entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K], specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol], and mole fractions.
- SVY#
Get/Set entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K], specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol], and mass fractions.
- T#
Temperature [K].
- TD#
Get/Set temperature [K] and density [kg/m^3 or kmol/m^3].
- TDX#
Get/Set temperature [K], density [kg/m^3 or kmol/m^3], and mole fractions.
- TDY#
Get/Set temperature [K] and density [kg/m^3 or kmol/m^3], and mass fractions.
- TP#
Get/Set temperature [K] and pressure [Pa].
- TPX#
Get/Set temperature [K], pressure [Pa], and mole fractions.
- TPY#
Get/Set temperature [K], pressure [Pa], and mass fractions.
- T_sat#
Saturation temperature [K] at the current pressure.
- Te#
Get/Set electron Temperature [K].
- UV#
Get/Set internal energy [J/kg or J/kmol] and specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol].
- UVX#
Get/Set internal energy [J/kg or J/kmol], specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol], and mole fractions.
- UVY#
Get/Set internal energy [J/kg or J/kmol], specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol], and mass fractions.
- X#
Get/Set the species mole fractions. Can be set as an array, as a dictionary, or as a string. Always returns an array:
>>> phase.X = [0.1, 0, 0, 0.4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.5] >>> phase.X = {'H2':0.1, 'O2':0.4, 'AR':0.5} >>> phase.X = 'H2:0.1, O2:0.4, AR:0.5' >>> phase.X array([0.1, 0, 0, 0.4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.5])
- Y#
Get/Set the species mass fractions. Can be set as an array, as a dictionary, or as a string. Always returns an array:
>>> phase.Y = [0.1, 0, 0, 0.4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.5] >>> phase.Y = {'H2':0.1, 'O2':0.4, 'AR':0.5} >>> phase.Y = 'H2:0.1, O2:0.4, AR:0.5' >>> phase.Y array([0.1, 0, 0, 0.4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.5])
- activities#
Array of nondimensional activities. Returns either molar or molal activities depending on the convention of the thermodynamic model.
- activity_coefficients#
Array of nondimensional, molar activity coefficients.
- add_species(species)#
Add a new species to this phase. Missing elements will be added automatically.
- add_species_alias(name, alias)#
Add the alternate species name
alias
for an original speciesname
.
- atomic_weight(m)#
Atomic weight [kg/kmol] of element
m
- atomic_weights#
Array of atomic weight [kg/kmol] for each element in the mixture.
- auxiliary_data#
Intermediate or model-specific parameters used by particular derived classes.
- basis#
Determines whether intensive thermodynamic properties are treated on a
mass
(per kg) ormolar
(per kmol) basis. This affects the values returned by the propertiesh
,u
,s
,g
,v
,density
,cv
, andcp
, as well as the values used with the state-setting properties such asHPX
andUV
.
- case_sensitive_species_names#
Enforce case-sensitivity for look up of species names
- charges#
Array of species charges [elem. charge].
- chemical_potentials#
Array of species chemical potentials [J/kmol].
- concentrations#
Get/Set the species concentrations. Units are kmol/m^3 for bulk phases, kmol/m^2 for surface phases, and kmol/m for edge phases.
- cp_mass#
Specific heat capacity at constant pressure [J/kg/K].
- cp_mole#
Molar heat capacity at constant pressure [J/kmol/K].
- critical_pressure#
Critical pressure [Pa].
- critical_temperature#
Critical temperature [K].
- cv_mass#
Specific heat capacity at constant volume [J/kg/K].
- cv_mole#
Molar heat capacity at constant volume [J/kmol/K].
- density_mass#
(Mass) density [kg/m^3].
- density_mole#
Molar density [kmol/m^3].
- electric_potential#
Get/Set the electric potential [V] for this phase.
- electrochemical_potentials#
Array of species electrochemical potentials [J/kmol].
- electron_energy_distribution#
Electron energy distribution
- electron_energy_distribution_type#
Electron energy distribution type
- electron_energy_levels#
Electron energy levels [eV]
- electron_species_name#
Electron species name
- element_index(element)#
The index of element
element
, which may be specified as a string or an integer. In the latter case, the index is checked for validity and returned. If no such element is present, an exception is thrown.
- element_name(m)#
Name of the element with index
m
.
- element_names#
A list of all the element names.
- elemental_mass_fraction(m)#
Get the elemental mass fraction \(Z_{\mathrm{mass},m}\) of element \(m\) as defined by:
\[Z_{\mathrm{mass},m} = \sum_k \frac{a_{m,k} M_m}{M_k} Y_k\]with \(a_{m,k}\) being the number of atoms of element \(m\) in species \(k\), \(M_m\) the atomic weight of element \(m\), \(M_k\) the molecular weight of species \(k\), and \(Y_k\) the mass fraction of species \(k\):
>>> phase.elemental_mass_fraction('H') 1.0
- Parameters:
m – Base element, may be specified by name or by index.
- elemental_mole_fraction(m)#
Get the elemental mole fraction \(Z_{\mathrm{mole},m}\) of element \(m\) (the number of atoms of element m divided by the total number of atoms) as defined by:
\[Z_{\mathrm{mole},m} = \frac{\sum_k a_{m,k} X_k} {\sum_k \sum_j a_{j,k} X_k}\]with \(a_{m,k}\) being the number of atoms of element \(m\) in species \(k\), \(\sum_j\) being a sum over all elements, and \(X_k\) being the mole fraction of species \(k\):
>>> phase.elemental_mole_fraction('H') 1.0
- Parameters:
m – Base element, may be specified by name or by index.
- enthalpy_mass#
Specific enthalpy [J/kg].
- enthalpy_mole#
Molar enthalpy [J/kmol].
- entropy_mass#
Specific entropy [J/kg/K].
- entropy_mole#
Molar entropy [J/kmol/K].
- equilibrate(XY, solver='auto', rtol=1e-09, max_steps=1000, max_iter=100, estimate_equil=0, log_level=0)#
Set to a state of chemical equilibrium holding property pair
XY
constant.- Parameters:
XY –
A two-letter string, which must be one of the set:
['TP','TV','HP','SP','SV','UV']
solver –
Specifies the equilibrium solver to use. May be one of the following:
'element_potential'
- a fast solver using the element potential method'gibbs'
- a slower but more robust Gibbs minimization solver'vcs'
- the VCS non-ideal equilibrium solver'auto'
- The element potential solver will be tried first, then if it fails the Gibbs solver will be tried.
rtol – The relative error tolerance.
max_steps – The maximum number of steps in composition to take to find a converged solution.
max_iter – For the Gibbs minimization solver, this specifies the number of outer iterations on T or P when some property pair other than TP is specified.
estimate_equil – Integer indicating whether the solver should estimate its own initial condition. If 0, the initial mole fraction vector in the
ThermoPhase
object is used as the initial condition. If 1, the initial mole fraction vector is used if the element abundances are satisfied. If -1, the initial mole fraction vector is thrown out, and an estimate is formulated.log_level – Set to a value greater than 0 to write diagnostic output.
- equivalence_ratio(fuel=None, oxidizer=None, basis='mole', include_species=None)#
Get the equivalence ratio \(\phi\) of the current mixture, which is a conserved quantity. Considers the oxidation of C to CO2, H to H2O and S to SO2. Other elements are assumed not to participate in oxidation (that is, N ends up as N2). If fuel and oxidizer are not specified, the equivalence ratio is computed from the available oxygen and the required oxygen for complete oxidation:
\[\phi = \frac{Z_{\mathrm{mole},C} + Z_{\mathrm{mole},S} + \frac{1}{4}Z_{\mathrm{mole},H}} {\frac{1}{2}Z_{\mathrm{mole},O}}\]where \(Z_{\mathrm{mole},e}\) is the elemental mole fraction of element \(e\). If the fuel and oxidizer compositions are specified, \(\phi\) is computed from:
\[\phi = \frac{Z}{1-Z}\frac{1-Z_{\mathrm{st}}}{Z_{\mathrm{st}}}\]where \(Z\) is the Bilger mixture fraction and \(Z_{\mathrm{st}}\) the Bilger mixture fraction at stoichiometric conditions. The
basis
determines the composition of fuel and oxidizer:basis='mole'
(default) means mole fractions,basis='mass'
means mass fractions. Note that this definition takes all species into account. In case certain species like inert diluents should be ignored, a list of species can be provided withinclude_species
. This means that only these species are considered for the computation of the equivalence ratio. For more information, see Python example>>> gas.set_equivalence_ratio(0.5, fuel='CH3:0.5, CH3OH:.5, N2:0.125', oxidizer='O2:0.21, N2:0.79, NO:0.01') >>> gas.equivalence_ratio(fuel='CH3:0.5, CH3OH:.5, N2:0.125', oxidizer='O2:0.21, N2:0.79, NO:0.01') 0.5
- Parameters:
fuel – Fuel species name or mole/mass fractions as string, array, or dict.
oxidizer – Oxidizer species name or mole/mass fractions as a string, array, or dict.
basis – Determines if
fuel
andoxidizer
are given in mole fractions (basis="mole"
) or mass fractions (basis="mass"
)include_species – List of species names (optional). Only these species are considered for the computation of the equivalence ratio. By default, all species are considered
- find_isomers(comp)#
Find species/isomers matching a composition specified by
comp
.
- gibbs_mass#
Specific Gibbs free energy [J/kg].
- gibbs_mole#
Molar Gibbs free energy [J/kmol].
- has_phase_transition#
Returns true if the phase represents a substance with phase transitions
- int_energy_mass#
Specific internal energy [J/kg].
- int_energy_mole#
Molar internal energy [J/kmol].
- is_compressible#
Returns true if the density of the phase is an independent variable defining the thermodynamic state of a substance
- is_pure#
Returns true if the phase represents a pure (fixed composition) substance
- isothermal_compressibility#
Isothermal compressibility [1/Pa].
- isotropic_shape_factor#
Shape factor of isotropic-velocity distribution for electron energy
- mass_fraction_dict(threshold=0.0)#
Return a dictionary giving the mass fraction for each species by name where the mass fraction is greater than
threshold
.
- max_temp#
Maximum temperature for which the thermodynamic data for the phase are valid.
- mean_electron_energy#
Mean electron energy [eV]
- mean_molecular_weight#
The mean molecular weight (molar mass) [kg/kmol].
- min_temp#
Minimum temperature for which the thermodynamic data for the phase are valid.
- mixture_fraction(fuel, oxidizer, basis='mole', element='Bilger')#
Get the mixture fraction of the current mixture in (kg fuel / (kg oxidizer + kg fuel)). This is a quantity that is conserved after oxidation. Considers the oxidation of C to CO2, H to H2O and S to SO2. Other elements are assumed not to participate in oxidation (that is, N ends up as N2). The
basis
determines the composition of fuel and oxidizer:basis="mole"
(default) means mole fractions,basis="mass"
means mass fractions. The mixture fraction can be computed from a single element (for example, carbon withelement="C"
)\[Z_m = \frac{Z_{\mathrm{mass},m}-Z_{\mathrm{mass},m,\mathrm{ox}}} {Z_{\mathrm{mass},\mathrm{fuel}}-Z_{\mathrm{mass},m,\mathrm{ox}}}\]where \(Z_{\mathrm{mass},m}\) is the elemental mass fraction of element \(m\) in the mixture, and \(Z_{\mathrm{mass},m,\mathrm{ox}}\) and \(Z_{\mathrm{mass},\mathrm{fuel}}\) are the elemental mass fractions of the oxidizer and fuel, or from the Bilger mixture fraction (
element="Bilger"
), which considers the elements C, S, H and O [Bilger, 1979]. The Bilger mixture fraction is computed by default:\[Z_m = Z_{\mathrm{Bilger}} = \frac{\beta-\beta_{\mathrm{ox}}} {\beta_{\mathrm{fuel}}-\beta_{\mathrm{ox}}}\]with
\[\beta = 2\frac{Z_C}{M_C}+2\frac{Z_S}{M_S}+\frac{1}{2}\frac{Z_H}{M_H} - \frac{Z_O}{M_O}\]and \(M_m\) the atomic weight of element \(m\). For more information, see Python example.:
>>> gas.set_mixture_fraction(0.5, 'CH3:0.5, CH3OH:0.5, N2:0.125', 'O2:0.21, N2:0.79, NO:0.01') >>> gas.mixture_fraction('CH3:0.5, CH3OH:0.5, N2:0.125', 'O2:0.21, N2:0.79, NO:.01') 0.5
- Parameters:
fuel – Fuel species name or mole/mass fractions as string, array, or dict.
oxidizer – Oxidizer species name or mole/mass fractions as a string, array, or dict.
basis – Determines if
fuel
andoxidizer
are given in mole fractions (basis='mole'
) or mass fractions (basis='mass'
)element – Computes the mixture fraction from the specified elemental mass fraction (given by element name or element index) or as the Bilger mixture fraction (default)
- modify_species(k, species)#
Modify the thermodynamic data associated with a species. The species name, elemental composition, and type of thermo parameterization must be unchanged.
- mole_fraction_dict(threshold=0.0)#
Return a dictionary giving the mole fraction for each species by name where the mole fraction is greater than
threshold
.
- molecular_weights#
Array of species molecular weights (molar masses) [kg/kmol].
- n_atoms(species, element)#
Number of atoms of element
element
in speciesspecies
. The element and species may be specified by name or by index.>>> phase.n_atoms('CH4','H') 4
- n_electron_energy_levels#
Number of electron energy levels
- n_elements#
Number of elements.
- n_selected_species#
Number of species selected for output (by slicing of Solution object)
- n_species#
Number of species.
- normalize_electron_energy_distribution_enabled#
Automatically normalize electron energy distribution
- partial_molar_cp#
Array of species partial molar specific heat capacities at constant pressure [J/kmol/K].
- partial_molar_enthalpies#
Array of species partial molar enthalpies [J/kmol].
- partial_molar_entropies#
Array of species partial molar entropies [J/kmol/K].
- partial_molar_int_energies#
Array of species partial molar internal energies [J/kmol].
- partial_molar_volumes#
Array of species partial molar volumes [m^3/kmol].
- phase_of_matter#
Get the thermodynamic phase (gas, liquid, etc.) at the current conditions.
- quadrature_method#
Quadrature method
- reference_pressure#
Reference state pressure [Pa].
- report(show_thermo=True, threshold=1e-14)#
Generate a report describing the thermodynamic state of this phase. To print the report to the terminal, simply call the phase object. The following two statements are equivalent:
>>> phase() >>> print(phase.report())
- Parameters:
show_thermo – A Boolean argument specifying whether to show phase thermodynamic information in the ouptut.
threshold – The threshold used to clip data in the output. Values below the threshold are not displayed.
- set_discretized_electron_energy_distribution(levels, distribution)#
Set electron energy distribution. When this method is used, electron temperature is calculated from the distribution.
- Parameters:
levels – vector of electron energy levels [eV]
distribution – vector of distribution
- set_equivalence_ratio(phi, fuel, oxidizer, basis='mole', *, diluent=None, fraction=None)#
Set the composition to a mixture of
fuel
andoxidizer
at the specified equivalence ratiophi
, holding temperature and pressure constant. Considers the oxidation of C to CO2, H to H2O and S to SO2. Other elements are assumed not to participate in oxidation (that is, N ends up as N2). Thebasis
determines the fuel and oxidizer compositions:basis='mole'
means mole fractions (default),basis='mass'
means mass fractions. The fuel/oxidizer mixture can be be diluted by adiluent
based on a mixingfraction
. The amount of diluent is quantified as a fraction of fuel, oxidizer or the fuel/oxidizer mixture. For more information, see Python example>>> gas.set_equivalence_ratio(0.5, 'CH4', 'O2:1.0, N2:3.76', basis='mole') >>> gas.mass_fraction_dict() {'CH4': 0.02837633052851, 'N2': 0.7452356312613, 'O2': 0.22638803821018} >>> gas.set_equivalence_ratio(1.2, 'NH3:0.8,CO:0.2', 'O2:1', basis='mole') >>> gas.mass_fraction_dict() {'CO': 0.14784006249290, 'NH3': 0.35956645545401, 'O2': 0.49259348205308}
- Parameters:
phi – Equivalence ratio
fuel – Fuel species name or mole/mass fractions as string, array, or dict.
oxidizer – Oxidizer species name or mole/mass fractions as a string, array, or dict.
basis – Determines if
fuel
andoxidizer
are given in mole fractions (basis='mole'
) or mass fractions (basis='mass'
).diluent – Optional parameter. Required if dilution is used. Specifies the composition of the diluent in mole/mass fractions as a string, array or dict.
fraction – Optional parameter. Dilutes the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the diluent according to
fraction
. Fraction can refer to the fraction of diluent in the mixture (for examplefraction="diluent:0.7"
will create a mixture with 30 % fuel/oxidizer and 70 % diluent), the fraction of fuel in the mixture (for examplefraction="fuel:0.1"
means that the mixture contains 10 % fuel. The amount of oxidizer is determined from the equivalence ratio and the remaining mixture is the diluent) or fraction of oxidizer in the mixture (for examplefraction="oxidizer:0.1"
). The fraction itself is interpreted as mole or mass fraction based onbasis
. The diluent is not considered in the computation of the equivalence ratio. Default is no dilution orfraction=None
. May be given as string or dictionary (for examplefraction={"fuel":0.7}
).
- set_mixture_fraction(mixture_fraction, fuel, oxidizer, basis='mole')#
Set the composition to a mixture of
fuel
andoxidizer
at the specified mixture fractionmixture_fraction
(kg fuel / kg mixture), holding temperature and pressure constant. Considers the oxidation of C to CO2, H to H2O and S to SO2. Other elements are assumed not to participate in oxidation (that is, N ends up as N2). Thebasis
determines the composition of fuel and oxidizer:basis='mole'
(default) means mole fractions,basis='mass'
means mass fractions. For more information, see Python example>>> gas.set_mixture_fraction(0.5, 'CH4', 'O2:1.0, N2:3.76') >>> gas.mass_fraction_dict() {'CH4': 0.5, 'N2': 0.38350014242997776, 'O2': 0.11649985757002226} >>> gas.set_mixture_fraction(0.5, {'NH3':0.8, 'CO':0.2}, 'O2:1.0') >>> gas.mass_fraction_dict() {'CO': 0.145682068778996, 'NH3': 0.354317931221004, 'O2': 0.5}
- Parameters:
mixture_fraction – Mixture fraction (kg fuel / kg mixture)
fuel – Fuel species name or mole/mass fractions as string, array, or dict.
oxidizer – Oxidizer species name or mole/mass fractions as a string, array, or dict.
basis – determines if
fuel
andoxidizer
are given in mole fractions (basis='mole'
) or mass fractions (basis='mass'
)
- set_unnormalized_mass_fractions(Y)#
Set the mass fractions without normalizing to force
sum(Y) == 1.0
. Useful primarily when calculating derivatives with respect toY[k]
by finite difference.
- set_unnormalized_mole_fractions(X)#
Set the mole fractions without normalizing to force
sum(X) == 1.0
. Useful primarily when calculating derivatives with respect toX[k]
by finite difference.
- sound_speed#
Speed of sound [m/s].
- species(k=None)#
Return the
Species
object for speciesk
, wherek
is either the species index or the species name. Ifk
is not specified, a list of all species objects is returned. Changes to this object do not affect theThermoPhase
orSolution
object until themodify_species
function is called.
- species_index(species)#
The index of species
species
, which may be specified as a string or an integer. In the latter case, the index is checked for validity and returned. If no such species is present, an exception is thrown.
- species_name(k)#
Name of the species with index
k
.
- species_names#
A list of all the species names.
- standard_concentration_units#
Get standard concentration units for this phase.
- standard_cp_R#
Array of nondimensional species standard-state specific heat capacities at constant pressure at the current temperature and pressure.
- standard_enthalpies_RT#
Array of nondimensional species standard-state enthalpies at the current temperature and pressure.
- standard_entropies_R#
Array of nondimensional species standard-state entropies at the current temperature and pressure.
- standard_gibbs_RT#
Array of nondimensional species standard-state Gibbs free energies at the current temperature and pressure.
- standard_int_energies_RT#
Array of nondimensional species standard-state internal energies at the current temperature and pressure.
- state#
Get/Set the full thermodynamic state as a single array, arranged as [temperature, density, mass fractions] for most phases. Useful mainly in cases where it is desired to store many states in a multidimensional array.
- state_size#
Return size of vector defining internal state of the phase.
- stoich_air_fuel_ratio(fuel, oxidizer, basis='mole')#
Get the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio (kg oxidizer / kg fuel). Considers the oxidation of C to CO2, H to H2O and S to SO2. Other elements are assumed not to participate in oxidation (that is, N ends up as N2). The
basis
determines the composition of fuel and oxidizer:basis='mole'
(default) means mole fractions,basis='mass'
means mass fractions:>>> gas.set_mixture_fraction(0.5, 'CH3:0.5, CH3OH:.5, N2:0.125', 'O2:0.21, N2:0.79, NO:0.01') >>> gas.stoich_air_fuel_ratio('CH3:0.5, CH3OH:.5, N2:0.125', 'O2:0.21, N2:0.79, NO:0.01') 8.148040722239438
- Parameters:
fuel – Fuel species name or mole/mass fractions as string, array, or dict.
oxidizer – Oxidizer species name or mole/mass fractions as a string, array, or dict.
basis – Determines if
fuel
andoxidizer
are given in mole fractions (basis='mole'
) or mass fractions (basis='mass'
)
- thermal_expansion_coeff#
Thermal expansion coefficient [1/K].
- thermo_model#
Return thermodynamic model describing phase.
- u#
Internal energy in [J/kg or J/kmol].
- volume_mass#
Specific volume [m^3/kg].
- volume_mole#
Molar volume [m^3/kmol].
InterfacePhase#
- class cantera.InterfacePhase(infile='', name='', adjacent=(), *, origin=None, yaml=None, thermo=None, species=(), **kwargs)#
Bases:
ThermoPhase
A class representing a surface, edge phase
- adjacent#
A dictionary containing higher-dimensional phases adjacent to this interface, for example bulk phases adjacent to a surface.
- coverages#
Get/Set the fraction of sites covered by each species.
- set_unnormalized_coverages(cov)#
Set the surface coverages without normalizing to force sum(cov) == 1.0. Useful primarily when calculating derivatives with respect to cov[k] by finite difference.
- site_density#
Get/Set the site density. [kmol/m^2] for surface phases; [kmol/m] for edge phases.
PureFluid#
- class cantera.PureFluid(infile='', name='')#
Bases:
ThermoPhase
A pure substance that can be a gas, a liquid, a mixed gas-liquid fluid, or a fluid beyond its critical point.
- DPQ#
Get the density [kg/m^3], pressure [Pa], and vapor fraction.
- HPQ#
Get the enthalpy [J/kg or J/kmol], pressure [Pa] and vapor fraction.
- PQ#
Get/Set the pressure [Pa] and vapor fraction of a two-phase state.
- PV#
Get/Set the pressure [Pa] and specific volume [m^3/kg] of a PureFluid.
- Q#
Get/Set vapor fraction (quality). Can be set only when in the two-phase region.
- SH#
Get/Set the specific entropy [J/kg/K] and the specific enthalpy [J/kg] of a PureFluid.
- SPQ#
Get the entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K], pressure [Pa], and vapor fraction.
- ST#
Get/Set the entropy [J/kg/K] and temperature [K] of a PureFluid.
- SVQ#
Get the entropy [J/kg/K or J/kmol/K], specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol], and vapor fraction.
- TDQ#
Get the temperature [K], density [kg/m^3 or kmol/m^3], and vapor fraction.
- TH#
Get/Set the temperature [K] and the specific enthalpy [J/kg] of a PureFluid.
- TPQ#
Get/Set the temperature [K], pressure [Pa], and vapor fraction of a PureFluid.
An Exception is raised if the thermodynamic state is not consistent.
- TQ#
Get/Set the temperature [K] and vapor fraction of a two-phase state.
- TV#
Get/Set the temperature [K] and specific volume [m^3/kg] of a PureFluid.
- UP#
Get/Set the specific internal energy [J/kg] and the pressure [Pa] of a PureFluid.
- UVQ#
Get the internal energy [J/kg or J/kmol], specific volume [m^3/kg or m^3/kmol], and vapor fraction.
- VH#
Get/Set the specific volume [m^3/kg] and the specific enthalpy [J/kg] of a PureFluid.
Mixture#
- class cantera.Mixture(phases)#
Bases:
object
Class Mixture represents mixtures of one or more phases of matter. To construct a mixture, supply a list of phases to the constructor, each paired with the number of moles for that phase:
>>> gas = cantera.Solution("gas.yaml") >>> gas.species_names ['H2', 'H', 'O2', 'O', 'OH'] >>> graphite = cantera.Solution("graphite.yaml") >>> graphite.species_names ['C(g)'] >>> mix = cantera.Mixture([(gas, 1.0), (graphite, 0.1)]) >>> mix.species_names ['H2', 'H', 'O2', 'O', 'OH', 'C(g)']
Note that the objects representing each phase compute only the intensive state of the phase – they do not store any information on the amount of this phase. Mixture objects, on the other hand, represent the full extensive state.
Caution
The Mixture class exists mainly for the purpose of providing input for multiphase equilibrium calculations. Its functionality for modifying the state of the mixture and computing properties is quite limited. Mixture objects cannot be used in conjunction with reactor networks.
Furthermore, the multiphase equilibrium solvers currently have a number of problems that lead to solver failures or incorrect results for some inputs. See the list of issues on GitHub for more information.
Mixture objects are ‘lightweight’ in the sense that they do not store parameters needed to compute thermodynamic or kinetic properties of the phases. These are contained in the (‘heavyweight’) phase objects. Multiple mixture objects may be constructed using the same set of phase objects. Each one stores its own state information locally, and synchronizes the phases objects whenever it requires phase properties.
- P#
Get or set the Pressure [Pa] of all phases in the mixture. When set, the temperature of the mixture is held fixed.
- T#
Get or set the Temperature [K] of all phases in the mixture. When set, the pressure of the mixture is held fixed.
- charge#
The total charge in Coulombs, summed over all phases.
- chemical_potentials#
The chemical potentials of all species [J/kmol].
- element_index(element)#
Index of element with name ‘element’.
>>> mix.element_index('H') 2
- element_moles(e)#
Total number of moles of element
e
, summed over all species. The element may be referenced either by index number or by name.
- equilibrate(XY, solver='auto', rtol=1e-09, max_steps=1000, max_iter=100, estimate_equil=0, log_level=0)#
Set to a state of chemical equilibrium holding property pair
XY
constant. This method uses a version of the VCS algorithm to find the composition that minimizes the total Gibbs free energy of the mixture, subject to element conservation constraints. For a description of the theory, see Smith and Missen, “Chemical Reaction Equilibrium.”- Parameters:
XY –
A two-letter string, which must be one of the set:
['TP', 'HP', 'SP']
solver – Set to either ‘auto’, ‘vcs’, or ‘gibbs’ to choose implementation of the solver to use. ‘vcs’ uses the solver implemented in the C++ class ‘VCSnonideal’, ‘gibbs’ uses the one implemented in class ‘MultiPhaseEquil’. ‘auto’ will try the ‘vcs’ solver first and then the ‘gibbs’ solver if that fails.
rtol – Error tolerance. Iteration will continue until (Delta mu)/RT is less than this value for each reaction. Note that this default is very conservative, and good equilibrium solutions may be obtained with larger error tolerances.
max_steps – Maximum number of steps to take while solving the equilibrium problem for specified T and P.
max_iter – Maximum number of temperature and/or pressure iterations. This is only relevant if a property pair other than (T,P) is specified.
estimate_equil – Flag indicating whether the solver should estimate its own initial condition. If 0, the initial mole fraction vector in the phase objects are used as the initial condition. If 1, the initial mole fraction vector is used if the element abundances are satisfied. if -1, the initial mole fraction vector is thrown out, and an estimate is formulated.
log_level – Determines the amount of output displayed during the solution process. 0 indicates no output, while larger numbers produce successively more verbose information.
- max_temp#
The maximum temperature for which all species in multi-species solutions have valid thermo data. Stoichiometric phases are not considered in determining max_temp.
- min_temp#
The minimum temperature for which all species in multi-species solutions have valid thermo data. Stoichiometric phases are not considered in determining min_temp.
- n_atoms(k, m)#
Number of atoms of element
m
in the species with global indexk
. The element may be referenced either by name or by index.>>> n = mix.n_atoms(3, 'H') 4.0
- n_elements#
Total number of elements present in the mixture.
- n_phases#
Number of phases
- n_species#
Number of species.
- phase(n)#
Return the ThermoPhase object for phase number
n
in the mixture.
- phase_charge(p)#
The charge of phase
p
in Coulombs.
- phase_index(p)#
Index of the phase named
p
.
- phase_moles(p=None)#
Moles in phase
p
, ifp
is specified, otherwise the number of moles in all phases.
- phase_names#
Names of all phases in the order added.
- report(threshold=1e-14)#
Generate a report describing the thermodynamic state of this mixture. To print the report to the screen, simply call the mixture object. The following two statements are equivalent:
>>> mix() >>> print(mix.report())
- set_phase_moles(p, moles)#
Set the number of moles of phase
p
tomoles
.
- species_index(phase, species)#
- Parameters:
phase – Phase object, index or name
species – Species name or index
Returns the global index of species
species
in phasephase
.
- species_moles#
Get or set the number of moles of each species. May be set either as a string or as an array. If an array is used, it must be dimensioned at least as large as the total number of species in the mixture. Note that the species may belong to any phase, and unspecified species are set to zero.
>>> mix.species_moles = 'C(s):1.0, CH4:2.0, O2:0.2'
- species_name(k)#
Name of the species with index
k
. Note that index numbers are assigned in order as phases are added.
- species_names#
Get the names of the species from all phases in the mixture
Species#
- class cantera.Species(name=None, composition=None, charge=None, size=None, init=True)#
Bases:
object
A class which stores data about a single chemical species that may be needed to add it to a
Solution
orInterface
object (and to the underlyingThermoPhase
andTransport
objects).- Parameters:
name – A string giving the name of the species, such as
'CH4'
composition – The elemental composition of the species, given either as a dict or a composition string, such as
{'C':1, 'H':4}
or'C:1, H:4'
.charge – The electrical charge, in units of the elementary charge. Default 0.0.
size – The effective size [m] of the species. Default 1.0.
init – Used internally when wrapping Species objects returned from C++
Example: creating an ideal gas phase with a single species:
ch4 = ct.Species('CH4', 'C:1, H:4') ch4.thermo = ct.ConstantCp(300, 1000, 101325, (300, -7.453347e7, 1.865912e5, 3.576053e4)) tran = ct.GasTransportData() tran.set_customary_units('nonlinear', 3.75, 141.40, 0.0, 2.60, 13.00) ch4.transport = tran gas = ct.Solution(thermo='ideal-gas', species=[ch4])
The static methods
list_from_file
andlist_from_yaml
can be used to createSpecies
objects from existing definitions in the YAML format. Either of the following will produce a list of 53Species
objects containing the species defined in the GRI 3.0 mechanism:S = ct.Species.list_from_file("gri30.yaml") import pathlib S = ct.Species.list_from_yaml( pathlib.Path('path/to/gri30.yaml').read_text(), section='species')
- charge#
The electrical charge on the species, in units of the elementary charge.
- clear_user_data()#
Clear all saved input data, so that the data given by
input_data
orSolution.write_yaml
will only include values generated by Cantera based on the current object state.
- composition#
A dict containing the elemental composition of the species. Keys are element names; values are the corresponding atomicities.
- static from_dict(data)#
Create a
Species
object from a dictionary corresponding to its YAML representation.- Parameters:
data – A dictionary corresponding to the YAML representation.
- input_data#
Get input data defining this Species, along with any user-specified data provided with its input (YAML) definition.
- static list_from_file(filename, section='species')#
Create a list of Species objects from all of the species defined in the section
section
of a YAML file. Directories on Cantera’s input file path will be searched for the specified file.
- static list_from_yaml(text, section=None)#
Create a list of Species objects from all the species defined in a YAML string. If
text
is a YAML mapping, thesection
name of the list to be read must be specified. Iftext
is a YAML list, nosection
name should be supplied.
- molecular_weight#
The molecular weight [amu] of the species.
Added in version 3.0.
- name#
The name of the species.
- size#
The effective size [m] of the species.
- thermo#
Get/Set the species reference-state thermodynamic data, as an instance of class
SpeciesThermo
.
- transport#
Get/Set the species transport parameters, as an instance of class
GasTransportData
.
- update_user_data(data)#
Add the contents of the provided
dict
as additional fields when generating YAML phase definition files withSolution.write_yaml
or in the data returned byinput_data
. Existing keys with matching names are overwritten.
Species Thermodynamic Properties#
These classes are used to describe the reference-state thermodynamic properties of a pure species.
SpeciesThermo#
- class cantera.SpeciesThermo(T_low, T_high, P_ref, coeffs)#
Bases:
object
Base class for representing the reference-state thermodynamic properties of a pure species. These properties are a function of temperature. Derived classes implement a parameterization of this temperature dependence. This is a wrapper for the C++ class SpeciesThermoInterpType.
- Parameters:
T_low – The minimum temperature [K] at which the parameterization is valid
T_high – The maximum temperature [K] at which the parameterization is valid
P_ref – The reference pressure [Pa] for the parameterization
coeffs – An array of coefficients for the parameterization. The length of this array and the meaning of each element depends on the specific parameterization.
- clear_user_data()#
Clear all saved input data, so that the data given by
input_data
orSolution.write_yaml
will only include values generated by Cantera based on the current object state.
- coeffs#
Array of coefficients for the parameterization. The length of this array and the meaning of each element depends on the specific parameterization.
- cp(T)#
Molar heat capacity at constant pressure [J/kmol/K] at temperature T.
- h(T)#
Molar enthalpy [J/kmol] at temperature T
- input_data#
Get input data defining this SpeciesThermo object, along with any user-specified data provided with its input (YAML) definition.
- max_temp#
Maximum temperature [K] at which the parameterization is valid.
- min_temp#
Minimum temperature [K] at which the parameterization is valid.
- n_coeffs#
Number of parameters for the parameterization.
- reference_pressure#
Reference pressure [Pa] for the parameterization.
- s(T)#
Molar entropy [J/kmol/K] at temperature T
- update_user_data(data)#
Add the contents of the provided
dict
as additional fields when generating YAML phase definition files withSolution.write_yaml
or in the data returned byinput_data
. Existing keys with matching names are overwritten.
ConstantCp#
- class cantera.ConstantCp(T_low, T_high, P_ref, coeffs)#
Bases:
SpeciesThermo
Thermodynamic properties for a species that has a constant specific heat capacity. This is a wrapper for the C++ class ConstCpPoly.
- Parameters:
coeffs –
An array of 4 elements:
coeffs[0]
= \(T_0\) [K]coeffs[1]
= \(H^o(T_0, p_{ref})\) [J/kmol]coeffs[2]
= \(S^o(T_0, p_{ref})\) [J/kmol-K]coeffs[3]
= \(c_p^o(T_0, p_{ref})\) [J/kmol-K]
Mu0Poly#
- class cantera.Mu0Poly(T_low, T_high, P_ref, coeffs)#
Bases:
SpeciesThermo
Thermodynamic properties for a species which is parameterized using an interpolation of the Gibbs free energy based on a piecewise constant heat capacity approximation. This is a wrapper for the C++ class Mu0Poly.
- Parameters:
coeffs –
An array of 2+2*npoints elements, in the following order:
coeffs[0]
: number of points (integer)coeffs[1]
: h^o(298.15 K) [J/kmol]coeffs[2]
: T_1 [Kelvin]coeffs[3]
: mu^o(T_1) [J/kmol]coeffs[4]
: T_2 [Kelvin]coeffs[5]
: mu^o(T_2) [J/kmol]…
NasaPoly2#
- class cantera.NasaPoly2(T_low, T_high, P_ref, coeffs)#
Bases:
SpeciesThermo
Thermodynamic properties for a species which is parameterized using the 7-coefficient NASA polynomial form in two temperature ranges. This is a wrapper for the C++ class NasaPoly2.
- Parameters:
coeffs –
An array of 15 elements, in the following order:
coeffs[0]
: The mid-point temperature [K] between the two parameterizationscoeffs[1:8]
: The 7 coefficients of the high-temperature parameterizationcoeffs[8:15]
: The 7 coefficients of the low-temperature parameterization
This is the coefficient order used in the standard fixed-format NASA input files.
Nasa9PolyMultiTempRegion#
- class cantera.Nasa9PolyMultiTempRegion(T_low, T_high, P_ref, coeffs)#
Bases:
SpeciesThermo
Thermodynamic properties for a species which is parameterized using the 9-coefficient NASA polynomial form encompassing multiple temperature ranges. This is a wrapper for the C++ class Nasa9PolyMultiTempRegion.
- Parameters:
coeffs –
An array of 1 + 11*`nzones` elements, in the following order:
coeffs[0]
: Number of zones (nzones
)coeffs[1 + 11*zone]
: minimum temperature within zonecoeffs[2 + 11*zone]
: maximum temperature within zonecoeffs[3:11 + 11*zone]
: 9 coefficients of the parameterization
where
zone
runs from zero tonzones
-1.
ShomatePoly2#
- class cantera.ShomatePoly2(T_low, T_high, P_ref, coeffs)#
Bases:
SpeciesThermo
Thermodynamic properties for a species which is parameterized using the Shomate equation in two temperature ranges. This is a wrapper for the C++ class ShomatePoly2.
- Parameters:
coeffs –
An array of 15 elements, in the following order:
coeffs[0]
: The mid-point temperature [K] between the two parameterizationscoeffs[1:8]
: The 7 coefficients of the low-temperature parameterizationcoeffs[8:15]
: The 7 coefficients of the high-temperature parameterization
These coefficients should be provided in their customary units (that is, such that \(c_p^o\) is in J/gmol-K and \(H^o\) is in kJ/gmol, as in the NIST Chemistry WebBook).
Element#
- class cantera.Element(name_or_symbol_or_atomic_number)#
Bases:
object
An element or a named isotope defined in Cantera.
Class
Element
gets data for the elements and isotopes defined in Elements.cpp. This class can be used in two ways. The first way is to get information about all of the elements stored in Cantera. The three attributesnum_elements_defined
,element_symbols
, andelement_names
can be accessed by:>>> ct.Element.num_elements_defined >>> ct.Element.element_symbols >>> ct.Element.element_names
Otherwise, if the class
Element
is called with an argument, it stores the data about that particular element. For example:>>> ar_sym = ct.Element('Ar') >>> ar_name = ct.Element('argon') >>> ar_num = ct.Element(18)
would all create instances with the information for argon. The available argument options to create an instance of the
Element
class with the element information are thename
,symbol
, andatomic_number
. Once an instance of the class is made, thename
,atomic_number
,symbol
, and atomicweight
can be accessed as attributes of the instance of theElement
class.>>> ar_sym.name 'argon' >>> ar_sym.weight 39.948 >>> ar_sym.atomic_number 18 >>> ar_sym.symbol 'Ar'
The elements available are listed below, in the
element_symbols
andelement_names
attribute documentation.- num_elements_defined = 118#
- element_symbols = ('H', 'He', 'Li', 'Be', 'B', 'C', 'N', 'O', 'F', 'Ne', 'Na', 'Mg', 'Al', 'Si', 'P', 'S', 'Cl', 'Ar', 'K', 'Ca', 'Sc', 'Ti', 'V', 'Cr', 'Mn', 'Fe', 'Co', 'Ni', 'Cu', 'Zn', 'Ga', 'Ge', 'As', 'Se', 'Br', 'Kr', 'Rb', 'Sr', 'Y', 'Zr', 'Nb', 'Mo', 'Tc', 'Ru', 'Rh', 'Pd', 'Ag', 'Cd', 'In', 'Sn', 'Sb', 'Te', 'I', 'Xe', 'Cs', 'Ba', 'La', 'Ce', 'Pr', 'Nd', 'Pm', 'Sm', 'Eu', 'Gd', 'Tb', 'Dy', 'Ho', 'Er', 'Tm', 'Yb', 'Lu', 'Hf', 'Ta', 'W', 'Re', 'Os', 'Ir', 'Pt', 'Au', 'Hg', 'Tl', 'Pb', 'Bi', 'Po', 'At', 'Rn', 'Fr', 'Ra', 'Ac', 'Th', 'Pa', 'U', 'Np', 'Pu', 'Am', 'Cm', 'Bk', 'Cf', 'Es', 'Fm', 'Md', 'No', 'Lr', 'Rf', 'Db', 'Sg', 'Bh', 'Hs', 'Mt', 'Ds', 'Rg', 'Cn', 'Nh', 'Gl', 'Mc', 'Lv', 'Ts', 'Og')#
- element_names = ('hydrogen', 'helium', 'lithium', 'beryllium', 'boron', 'carbon', 'nitrogen', 'oxygen', 'fluorine', 'neon', 'sodium', 'magnesium', 'aluminum', 'silicon', 'phosphorus', 'sulfur', 'chlorine', 'argon', 'potassium', 'calcium', 'scandium', 'titanium', 'vanadium', 'chromium', 'manganese', 'iron', 'cobalt', 'nickel', 'copper', 'zinc', 'gallium', 'germanium', 'arsenic', 'selenium', 'bromine', 'krypton', 'rubidium', 'strontium', 'yttrium', 'zirconium', 'nobelium', 'molybdenum', 'technetium', 'ruthenium', 'rhodium', 'palladium', 'silver', 'cadmium', 'indium', 'tin', 'antimony', 'tellurium', 'iodine', 'xenon', 'cesium', 'barium', 'lanthanum', 'cerium', 'praseodymium', 'neodymium', 'promethium', 'samarium', 'europium', 'gadolinium', 'terbium', 'dysprosium', 'holmium', 'erbium', 'thulium', 'ytterbium', 'lutetium', 'hafnium', 'tantalum', 'tungsten', 'rhenium', 'osmium', 'iridium', 'platinum', 'gold', 'mercury', 'thallium', 'lead', 'bismuth', 'polonium', 'astatine', 'radon', 'francium', 'radium', 'actinium', 'thorium', 'protactinium', 'uranium', 'neptunium', 'plutonium', 'americium', 'curium', 'berkelium', 'californium', 'einsteinium', 'fermium', 'mendelevium', 'nobelium', 'lawrencium', 'rutherfordium', 'dubnium', 'seaborgium', 'bohrium', 'hassium', 'meitnerium', 'darmstadtium', 'roentgenium', 'copernicium', 'nihonium', 'flerovium', 'moscovium', 'livermorium', 'tennessine', 'oganesson')#
- property atomic_number#
The atomic number of the element or isotope.
- property name#
The name of the element or isotope.
- property symbol#
The symbol of the element or isotope.
- property weight#
The atomic weight of the element or isotope.